Library mathcomp.field.finfield

(* (c) Copyright 2006-2016 Microsoft Corporation and Inria.                  
 Distributed under the terms of CeCILL-B.                                  *)

From HB Require Import structures.
From mathcomp Require Import ssreflect ssrfun ssrbool eqtype ssrnat seq choice.
From mathcomp Require Import fintype div tuple bigop prime finset fingroup.
From mathcomp Require Import ssralg poly polydiv morphism action countalg.
From mathcomp Require Import finalg zmodp cyclic center pgroup abelian matrix.
From mathcomp Require Import mxpoly vector falgebra fieldext separable galois.
From mathcomp Require ssrnum ssrint archimedean algC cyclotomic.

Additional constructions and results on finite fields FinFieldExtType L == a FinFieldType structure on the carrier of L, where L IS a fieldExtType F structure for an F that has a finFieldType structure. This does not take any existing finType structure on L; this should not be made canonical FinSplittingFieldType F L == a SplittingFieldType F structure on the carrier of L, where L IS a fieldExtType F for an F with a finFieldType structure; this should not be made canonical finvect_type vT == alias of vT : vecType R equipped with canonical instances for finType, finRing, etc structures (including FinFieldExtType above) for abstract vectType, falgType and fieldExtType over a finFieldType PrimeCharType charRp == the carrier of a ringType R such that charRp : p \in [char R] holds. This type has canonical ringType, ..., fieldType structures compatible with those of R, as well as canonical lmodType 'F_p, ..., algType 'F_p structures, plus an falgType structure if R is a finUnitRingType and a splittingFieldType struture if R is a finFieldType FinSplittingFieldFor nz_p == sigma-pair whose sval is a splittingFieldType that is the splitting field for p : {poly F} over F : finFieldType, given nz_p : p != 0 PrimePowerField pr_p k_gt0 == sigma2-triple whose s2val is a finFieldType of characteristic p and order m = p ^ k, given pr_p : prime p and k_gt0 : k > 0 FinDomainFieldType domR == a finFieldType structure on a finUnitRingType R, given domR : GRing.IntegralDomain.axiom R. This is intended to be used inside proofs, where one cannot declare Canonical instances Otherwise one should construct explicitly the intermediate structures using the ssralg and finalg constructors, and finDomain_mulrC domR finDomain_fieldP domR to prove commutativity and field axioms (the former is Wedderburn's little theorem). FinDomainSplittingFieldType domR charRp == a splittingFieldType structure that repackages the two constructions above

Set Implicit Arguments.

Import GroupScope GRing.Theory FinRing.Theory.
Local Open Scope ring_scope.

Section FinRing.

Variable R : finRingType.

Lemma finRing_nontrivial : [set: R] != 1%g.

Lemma finRing_gt1 : 1 < #|R|.

End FinRing.

Section FinField.

Variable F : finFieldType.

Lemma card_finField_unit : #|[set: {unit F}]| = #|F|.-1.

Definition finField_unit x (nz_x : x != 0) :=
  FinRing.unit F (etrans (unitfE x) nz_x).

Lemma expf_card x : x ^+ #|F| = x :> F.

Lemma finField_genPoly : 'X^#|F| - 'X = \prod_x ('X - x%:P) :> {poly F}.

Lemma finCharP : {p | prime p & p \in [char F]}.

Lemma finField_is_abelem : is_abelem [set: F].

Lemma card_finCharP p n : #|F| = (p ^ n)%N prime p p \in [char F].

End FinField.

Section CardVspace.

Variables (F : finFieldType) (T : finType).

Section Vector.

Variable cvT : Vector F T.
Let vT := Vector.Pack cvT.

Lemma card_vspace (V : {vspace vT}) : #|V| = (#|F| ^ \dim V)%N.

Lemma card_vspacef : #|{: vT}%VS| = #|T|.

End Vector.

Variable caT : Falgebra F T.
Let aT := Falgebra.Pack caT.

Lemma card_vspace1 : #|(1%VS : {vspace aT})| = #|F|.

End CardVspace.

Definition finvect_type (vT : Type) : predArgType := vT.

Section FinVector.
Variables (R : finRingType) (vT : vectType R).
Local Notation fvT := (finvect_type vT).

End FinVector.

Section FinFieldExt.
Variables (F : finFieldType) (fT : fieldExtType F).
Local Notation ffT := (finvect_type fT).

Lemma ffT_splitting_subproof : SplittingField.axiom ffT.

End FinFieldExt.

Definition FinSplittingFieldType (F : finFieldType) (fT : fieldExtType F) :=
  HB.pack_for (splittingFieldType F) fT (SplittingField.on (finvect_type fT)).
Definition FinFieldExtType (F : finFieldType) (fT : fieldExtType F) :=
  HB.pack_for finFieldType (FinSplittingFieldType fT)
    (FinRing.Field.on (finvect_type fT)).
Arguments FinSplittingFieldType : clear implicits.

Section PrimeChar.

Variable p : nat.

Section PrimeCharRing.

Variable R0 : ringType.

Definition PrimeCharType of p \in [char R0] : predArgType := R0.

Hypothesis charRp : p \in [char R0].
Local Notation R := (PrimeCharType charRp).
Implicit Types (a b : 'F_p) (x y : R).

Definition primeChar_scale a x := a%:R × x.
Local Infix "*p:" := primeChar_scale (at level 40).

Let natrFp n : (inZp n : 'F_p)%:R = n%:R :> R.

Lemma primeChar_scaleA a b x : a ×p: (b ×p: x) = (a × b) ×p: x.

Lemma primeChar_scale1 : left_id 1 primeChar_scale.

Lemma primeChar_scaleDr : right_distributive primeChar_scale +%R.

Lemma primeChar_scaleDl x : {morph primeChar_scale^~ x: a b / a + b}.

Lemma primeChar_scaleAl (a : 'F_p) (u v : R) : a *: (u × v) = (a *: u) × v.

Lemma primeChar_scaleAr (a : 'F_p) (x y : R) : a *: (x × y) = x × (a *: y).

End PrimeCharRing.

Local Notation type := @PrimeCharType.

TODO: automatize parameter inference to do all of these

Section FinRing.

Variables (R0 : finRingType) (charRp : p \in [char R0]).
Local Notation R := (type _ charRp).

Let pr_p : prime p.

Lemma primeChar_abelem : p.-abelem [set: R].

Lemma primeChar_pgroup : p.-group [set: R].

Lemma order_primeChar x : x != 0 :> R #[x]%g = p.

Let n := logn p #|R|.

Lemma card_primeChar : #|R| = (p ^ n)%N.

Lemma primeChar_vectAxiom : {v2r : R 'rV_n | linear v2r & bijective v2r}.

Lemma primeChar_dimf : \dim {: R : vectType 'F_p } = n.

End FinRing.

Section FinField.

Variables (F0 : finFieldType) (charFp : p \in [char F0]).
Local Notation F := (type _ charFp).

End FinField.

End PrimeChar.

Section FinSplittingField.

Variable F : finFieldType.

By card_vspace order K = #|K| for any finType structure on L; however we do not want to impose the FinVector instance here.
Let order (L : vectType F) (K : {vspace L}) := (#|F| ^ \dim K)%N.

Section FinGalois.

Variable L : splittingFieldType F.
Implicit Types (a b : F) (x y : L) (K E : {subfield L}).

Let galL K : galois K {:L}.

Fact galLgen K :
  {alpha | generator 'Gal({:L} / K) alpha & x, alpha x = x ^+ order K}.

Lemma finField_galois K E : (K E)%VS galois K E.

Lemma finField_galois_generator K E :
   (K E)%VS
 {alpha | generator 'Gal(E / K) alpha
        & {in E, x, alpha x = x ^+ order K}}.

End FinGalois.

Lemma Fermat's_little_theorem (L : fieldExtType F) (K : {subfield L}) a :
  (a \in K) = (a ^+ order K == a).

End FinSplittingField.

Section FinFieldExists.
While the existence of finite splitting fields and of finite fields of arbitrary prime power order is mathematically straightforward, it is technically challenging to formalize in Coq. The Coq typechecker performs poorly for some of the deeply nested dependent types used in the construction, such as polynomials over extensions of extensions of finite fields. Any conversion in a nested structure parameter incurs a huge overhead as it is shared across term comparison by call-by-need evalution. The proof of FinSplittingFieldFor is contrived to mitigate this effect: the abbreviation map_poly_extField alone divides by 3 the proof checking time, by reducing the number of occurrences of field(Ext)Type structures in the subgoals; the succesive, apparently redundant 'suffices' localize some of the conversions to smaller subgoals, yielding a further 8-fold time gain. In particular, we construct the splitting field as a subtype of a recursive construction rather than prove that the latter yields precisely a splitting field. The apparently redundant type annotation reduces checking time by 30%.
Let map_poly_extField (F : fieldType) (L : fieldExtType F) :=
  map_poly (in_alg L) : {poly F} {poly L}.

Local Notation "p ^%:A" := (map_poly_extField _ p)
  (at level 2, format "p ^%:A") : ring_scope.

Lemma FinSplittingFieldFor (F : finFieldType) (p : {poly F}) :
  p != 0 {L : splittingFieldType F | splittingFieldFor 1 p^%:A {:L}}.

Lemma PrimePowerField p k (m := (p ^ k)%N) :
  prime p 0 < k {Fm : finFieldType | p \in [char Fm] & #|Fm| = m}.

End FinFieldExists.

Section FinDomain.

Import order ssrnum ssrint archimedean algC cyclotomic Order.TTheory Num.Theory.
Local Infix "%|" := dvdn. (* Hide polynomial divisibility. *)

Variable R : finUnitRingType.

Hypothesis domR : GRing.integral_domain_axiom R.
Implicit Types x y : R.

Let lregR x : x != 0 GRing.lreg x.

Lemma finDomain_field : GRing.field_axiom R.

This is Witt's proof of Wedderburn's little theorem.